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Ancient technology

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One still most basic side of life of ancient Greeks, equally importantly but perhaps acquaintance from the ancient Greek philosophy and religion or the military history of ancient Greeks, is the technology. 2. The ancient Greeks were not a - closed geographically or intellectually culture. Thus they assembled the knowledge that between now and then had been acquired by other cultures. Crowd of technologies they had reached [ap] " Near East in the Greek countries, in [Ionia], Attica and Peloponnese, and were applied up to the 6th eg century. They recorded and they between now and then separated in sciences the world knowledge that reached in the geographic heart of Hellenism. Then they developed the basic sciences which continue up to today and evolve the all scientific teams in entire the world. Ancient Greek fast realized the contribution of technology in the development of person and in the improvement of his [poiotas] life. Progressively but sure, new (eminently Greek) activity, the Science, begins [diapotizei] the [klironomimeni] Technology. From this [ymenaio] will result fruits riches. Firstly, himself the Technology becomes more productive (more economic, wider application), the technological innovation becomes [eycheresteri] (fast technological progress). Second, [kathos] now [allilosymplironontai] Science and Technology, a new type of needs waits for it is served by the Technology: It is himself the Science, which has need from various bodies of observation and measurement. The "technologically" these products of will be [antidoro] Technology for all donations it received from the Science! In ancient Greece, the multiple relation Technology - Science - Technology - Science will be observed many times over: . The empiric technique of measurement of fields mutates into the science of Geometry. Thus, the big mathematician [Thalis] [Milisios] was also Mechanic important: [Alin] river at [diorycha] diverted from [archaionreethron], [Kroisoy] army [diebibasen] ([Irodotos], I, 70). . With her line, now, the science of Geometry becomes background of new applied sciences, as the Optics, the Geography, the Astronomy but also the Statics. . An other example of dialectic of relation between the Science and the Technology in ancient Greece was the musical technique: The empiric scale of sounds is changed in scale of corresponding numbers from Pythagoras. And then, the manufacture of musical bodies becomes [eycherestati]. Does not allow here the space we develop the fundamental [metritiki] technology and the basic mechanic tools of ancient Greeks. These however were the main cause for the big impulse that received the Greek Technology, [ap] " the 5th eg until the 1 [m].[Ch]. century. 3. It follows here, sampling only, apposition of certain realizations of Technology of Greeks. Mining - Metallurgy. The victory of Athenians in Salamine with 200 [neonaypigimenes] [triireis], is not irrelevant the make that, on three years before, the production of silver in Lavrion had reached in the apex (750 [talanta] at year). And if they lost [Peloponnisiako] war, they are because the mines almost they had closed (75 [talanta] at year). Of course, neither the mining neither metallurgy of Athenians they were initially original. "However, at the 5th [ai]. and the 4th [ai]. are observed a blossoming and a regularization that never previously it had it was observed: - Comfortable galleries of excavation. - Twin shafts for the mechanization of [anyimoseos] charges. - Organized mass [ekkamineysi] and fusion. - New techniques of equipment of minerals. - Mechanization of cutting of currencies. Military Technique. Here [proketai] for a permanent historical phenomenon and no for "[epanaliimi]" the History: Most technical [anakalyimeis] they become (or, be it, they are applied widely) in order to they serve military expedience. Avoiding a [ithikologiki] approach in the Subject, observes no one that this phenomenon is legitimate: Here the [imychologiko] motive for the invention is (unfortunately) intense, while the economic means and the technical support unlimitedly (power, [gar]). Of course, the military machines (as a big part of [archaias] technology, as we said) are previous the Greeks. [Irodotos] (111, 52) describes how [Perses], installed in the Supreme Court, [okos] [stypeion] [peri] [oistoys] [perithentes] [aimeian], [etoxeyon] [es] [irra]y[ma]. Only, however, afterwards the 5th [ai]., with the changes in [ochyrotiki] (the equivalence was inevitable), is observed most rapid technological progress and in the "aggressive" arms. Hear first how [Ooykydidis] ([D], 100) describes the at [Dilioy] attack of [Boioton]: [Keraianme]y[alin] [dicha] [prisantes], [ekoilanon] [apasan] and [xynirmosan] [apasan] [palin] precisely [osper] pipe. And on [akranlebita] [te] [irtisan] [alysesi] and [akroirysion] from the aerial [sidiroyn] [es] this signaling [katheito], and [esedidiroto] on big and the other timber. [Proi]y[on] from [polloy] [amaxais] [to] [teichei], and therefore [eii] [e]y[gys], blows [me]y[alas] [esthentes] [es] to [eayton] utmost the aerial [efyson]. I blow [ioysa] [ste]y[anos] [es] [tonlebita] (having coals [te] [immenoys] and sulfur and bitumen), [irlo]y[a] [epoiei] [me]y[alin] and [iime] his walls. The first flame thrower of History had overcome the [athinaiki] guard of [Dilioy]. "However, the times changed, the catapultes that were invented by the Engineers of [Dionysioy] of Elder (399 eg), [eythytonon] and [palintonon] (triple initial force [ap]" [eythytonon]) [periichan] [geometrikes] and mechanic [sylliimeis], that rightly verify and here 14 [plisistia] import of scientific spirit in the technology. "When his Engineer, [Polyeidos], manufacture the [elepolin], it will have invented first warship chariot. The himself and Controversial Athenian (Engineer of Dimitrios of Besieger). [Elepolis] Controversial it had 40 m. [yimos], she was invested externally with iron plates, the windows they opened with mechanic means in order to [epitreimoyn] in the [pantoeidi] balistic instruments of all floors [balloyn] at the enemy. The all was moved on eight giant wheels of thickness of 1,0 m. The description of [Diodoroy] (XX, 91) cuts the breath! "One in deed [ap]" the catapultes of (Dionyssis from Magnesia) had the name machine-gun, as testifies Friends [Byzantios]. Such aggressive machines it was natural they cause the growth of corresponding defensive technology. [As] is reported here a [ap]" the [xakoysta] examples, at the Romen defense of Syracuses, with the help of [archimichanikoy] [Archimidoys]: Imposing cranes that suddenly removed [mpoymes]-them outside from the [teichi], in order to they seize navigable [poliorkitikoys] towers of Romen, them they rock in air and their [brontixoyn] in the Sea! It marks also (at the other rather -technician[anti]) [Ploytarchos], ([Markellos], XV): [Tais] [de] [naysin], from the walls, [airno] [yperaioroymenai] aerials, [tas] [men] under [brithoys] supporting [anothen] prompting [katedyon] to bottom, [tas] [de] [chersin] [sidirais] or [stomasin] [eikasmenois] y[eranon] [anasposai] [prorathen], equitable on [prymnan] [ebaptizon], or [di]' [antitonon] [endon] [epistreiromenai] and [peria]y[omenai], [tois] under wall [pefykosi] [krimnois] and [skopelois] [prosirasson], [ama] [fthoro] [pollo] the passengers [syntri], [bomenon]. The technology is recognized now as main force, when himself [Markellos] says (XVII) for Archimedes: . to the y[eometrikon] this [Briareon] fighting, [os] [tas] [men] [nays] [imon] [kathizon] to the Sea, playing, [met]' [aischynis] [ekbeblike], their fabulous [ekato]y[cheiras] [yperairei], [tosayta] [ballon] [ama] arrows at [imon]. Be careful this [met]' [aischynis]. Still it could not arrest the mind that something [aimyches] machines made him well - and no one brave opponent. Error big, of course. The machine had her-the most human characteristics: 'No animal [mpratsa] [mpechlibani], but the human mind of scientist. Technical work. Was reported already the case of [Oali] ([dos] [ai].) [ektrepi] [Alyn] river. Near [Ionia] always, the breakwater of Samos (depth of 35 m., length of 335 m.) is from the more important harbor work of antiquity. The tunnel of however Samos, work of [Megareos] [Eypalinoy], presents perhaps the bigger interest: With [yimos] round the 2,5 m. and length of 835 m. (except from the 400 m. [orygmatos] accesses) it even impresses, for the current data. Line has now a wider hydraulic work, the desiccation of lake of Aspects of (lake [Dystoy] that is to say, in the southerner Evia). Is saved the convention of municipality [Eretrieon] with mechanic [Chairefani] (330 eg). Is described the work (manufacture of [apocheteytikon] conductors and [dryfrakton], manufacture [ydrodexamenis] Mr a.), is given four-year deadline, is provided imperfection in imported materially, and immunity in the contractor and in the workers at the duration of four-year period. Are forecasted however also explicit penal clauses, material and moral nature. Big Alexandria. In unified geopolitical, economic and cultural frame of Greek world it was natural is completed the turn of Greek [skeimeos] to what (very - much later) [Neyton] would name Natural Philosophy. Instead of the interpretation of world from "outside to the means" (eg [anti] they begin from the four elements of nature or the general beginning), they seek now they connect [mikrogegonota] the reality, in order to they make him potentially [apochtisoyn] meaning. "Thus, [imachnoyn] the World from "in to outside", with a way that announces in advance [Galilaio]. Now, a lot more [areskontai] in the observation, in the measurement, in the manufacture. And something still: The big writers Engineers are not more [ktimaties] or generals. [Ktisibios] (the founder of [Alexandrinis] of technological delivery) was son of barber, while " Iras of (which the work [epanekdidetai] continuously up to the 16th [ai]. [m].[Ch]. in Europe) it worked in the beginning as shoemaker. A shortest presentation of work of Engineers of that period imports in the climate of [Alexandrinis] of faculty: Modern or little ancienter [Archimidoys] [Ktisibios], sciences Natural firstly, '[epedeiknye] with [paradei]y[mata] the nature of air and [dynami]/[tachytita] his her movement " says to us Friends [Byzantios]. [Aerotono] [Ktisibioy] it was a machine which, combining a spring and [pepiesmeno] air, was in position it flies at intervals Stones. Most important he is that the instrument included also metal roll with piston, a mechanism of big technical importance. The big glory, however, [Ktisibioy] they were the pumps. [Bitroybios] describes him nominally (and very in detail), while Archimedes appears that rather he improved despite he invented the pump-snail. For next the 2.000 [chronia] all humanity these pumps will use. The characteristic, in any case, [Ktisibioy] (characteristic of [alexandrinoy] spirit), was the breadth of technical interests, but also the bigger practical possibilities thanks to the [eycheresteri] use of metals. [Bitroybios] (H, 7) admits that it does not know what [protodialexei] [ap] " the machines of [Ktisibioy] and refers interested in the books of big [Alexandrinoy]. Friends [Byzantios] (round 250 eg) [synegraime] books, important part of which is rescued: [Mschloi], Intellectually, [Kleimydrai], [Poliorkitiki], Polemics Machines, Toothed wheels. It deserves was appearred the Subject of toothed wheels: The transmission of force and the proliferation or the subdivision of [peristrofikon] movements are supported in this wheels. "They was a big moment for [Michanologia]. Intellectual [Filonos] they are a treatise of Physics for liquids and gases, without however still it constitutes even scientific system. It includes however a lot of instructive experiments. The metallurgic knowledge of [Filonos] is advanced: It at greater length justifies [Ktisibio] that had recommended the replacement "[neyrotonoy] with [chalkotonon]" : It is the replacement of fibers of animals with suitably [Thermosfyrilatoymena] laminas [krateromatos]. Friends, finally, honors the [alexandrini] tendency to the automatisms, on t o [ys] that [Ktisibios] so much had worked. The saved arabic translation of Intellectual is treasure such [paignion]: The air, the liquids, the fire, the [plotires], toothed rules offer rich arsenal for a new technology (the automatisms), that unfortunately did not anticipate then it was completed, however it would supply all Europe for other 1500 [chro] [nia]. Eight hunderd years delivery you finish almost with " [Irona], the gentleman her-however it was not degraded: " Iras [Alexandrinos] was above from all scientist of big breadth and depth. Rescued books they belong in three mainly categories, as generally speaking scientific ([Metritiki], Mechanics, [Baroylkos]), reported in applied sciences (Intellectually, [Peri] Binoculars), and technologically ([Peri] [ydrion] horoscopes, [Belopoiika], [Cheiro], [balistras] manufacture and [Aytomatopoiitiki]). In his Mechanics, work of maturity, is reported very often eponymously in Aristotle, in Archimedes and in [Filona]. New instruments, as [pantoeidi] [piestiria], they are presented for first time. Each instrument is analyzed in more simply departments, that are reduced, with their line, in levers, with basic [geometriki] interpretation. Method, therefore, scientific and didactics - [par] " all that the books aim at the applications. Exist however also questions, as "why a [peplatysmeno] body it falls more latent from ball of equal weight", that remains (tragically, I would say) unanswered: The science would have [kami] still street very - if [diekopteto]. In Intellectual ([sifones], [lampes], pumps, hydraulic musical bodies) we found itself in atmosphere of [Filonos], but with very more applications, same with the motive force of steam. "No, they had not reached still in the locomotive of Watt - however, enough basic knowledge had already [apochtithi]: The [ostiki] and motive force of steam, as well as his attributes at the compaction and his dilation, but also the knowledge of necessary automatisms for the regulation of catering of steam. "Thus, eminent [atmostrobilos] " [Ironos] it can in the eyes [moiazi] with game, recommend however a mental revolution. And he will be the alone precursor of locomotive for the next 1000 years. With such data, it is not by no means curious that the work of " [Ironos] knew repeated publications in the all world, until 1578 [m].[Ch]., therefore was published the last Italian publication. Why this? I wonder, only from the 17th [ai]. and later the knowledge did exceed the breadth of technological education of Greeks? 4. Now, in the reflection of conclusion, [as] [xanathesoyme] certain [epichoriazonta] question marks and [as] [apopeirathoyme] we comment him. Have the ancient " Greek technical did interests? They allocated Technology? If yes, then why they didn't have electric [imygeia]? "Those who they preceded they do not leave margins for the first question: We saw the permanent interest of Greeks for the Technique, we remembered brilliant technological realizations and, mainest, saw the consequence, the [adiaptoti] continuity and the systemisation of [archaias] technological progress from the 8th eg until the 1 eg century. And still we saw the vivifying invasion of Science [mes] in the Technology. Finally, reaching in their [Alexandrinoys] years, we became witnesses of acne where [zileyan] for thousand five hundred years still. With these data, wonder does no one "[p]c[ithen] the [peri] [antitechnikotitas] the Greeks fable? ". And, [kat] " beginning, the fable is suseptible of a obvious diagnosis of anachronism: "[Echome] a such opinion because [l].[ch]. ancient did not know the electric energy. You say and the kings of England they did not live up to yesterday with [ladolychnara] and [gkazolampes]. The second cause of fable is the disproportionate effect of [apoimeon] Plato. "No so much when it put him with [Archyta] (this Leonardo da Vinci of antiquity). The fair concern of Plato concerned the special Subject of science of Geometry and no the Technology. Elsewhere it was the problem of Plato and season: [Aristokratiki] [antiliimi] [peri] the brutal arts and the weakness of craftsmen to deal with the City. [Eyglottoteros] is [o]=[enofon] (Economically, lV, 2): And yap [ai] y[e] [banaysikai] [kaloymenai] (arts) and [epirritoi] [eisin] and [eikotosmentoi] [pany] [adoxoyntai] to [tonpoleon]. [Katalymainontai] yap bodies [...] and a lot of [ai] [imychai] [arrostoterai] y[inontai]. The society however took turn, new forces entered in the production and in the culture (the dense trade, the new materials, the extensive manufactures) = forces that had need from [Te] [chnologia]. "They was natural the old forces to show inactivity. It is in deed to price of Plato that it admires the craftsmen ([Gor]y[ias], 503 E " [pantes] [dimioyr]y[oi] seeing to these [er]y[on] [oyk] [eiki] [ein]l[e]y[omenos] [proseferei] [all]' as if type what [ayto] [schi] this [er]y[azetai]'), as long as [ki] if [Theori] that the mathematic part gives value in the Technique ([Filibos], 55 d/e, "[Oion] all that arts if numerical [chorizi] and [metritikin] and static, nefarious demised each if y[i]y[nsito]'). Hence Backs by no means it would not consider nefarious the afterwards the 4th [ai]. technology that more and more was supported in these Sciences. [En] [pasi] [de] [periptosei], [Solon] compelled Athenians to learn a profession in the children, at the time of [Perikleoys] the real City (no utopian) it did not exclude [cheironaktes] from the administration. And, finally [panton], Greece was not only Athens. "The All big Engineers came [ap]" the region (Byzantium, Samos, Rhodes, Alexandria, [Taras], Syracuses, Palaces, Pella etc). And is this phenomenon very eloquent. Still more that several from these Engineers was also official persons (generals as [Archytas] or, in any case, [parakoimomenoi] sovereigns). Conclusion [ap] " all these are that nothing in the ancient history does not support [apoimi] that the " Greeks they did not have [tacha] technology or that they were [antitechnikoi]. It is rather for [mythologima] justified firstly from the lack of sufficient historical research, and second from legitimate [romaiofilia] certain western writers. [As] we finish however with the second question - "why did not anticipate [gini] in Greece the industrial revolution of 19th [ai]. [m].[Ch].". Olympic Airways [protaxome] answers which we did not sympathize: (i) "did not love the " Greeks the Technique". The this ignorant of history [apoimi] is not appearred more today so much intensely, as long as at the past. [Kalyimame] in any case in the previous paragraph. (11) "him did not need the industrial revolution the " Greeks, one and allocated abundant small cost energy - the slaves". First - first, if [Thelome] [kanome] historical science, why [antistrefome] the argument? "Because they did not have sufficient [technolo]y[ian], y[i]" this [prosefey]y[an] in the solution of slaveholding " (V. Gille)! See how much easy he is [pesi] no one [s] " a [epistimonikofani] dogmatism. [Alloste], [xerome] today how many, on the contrary, the growth of technology of 19th [ai]. rendered feasible the suppression of work in various "modern" countries. Did not become reverse! The characteristic shot in the [peri] work argument gave him believes the J. [EIIyI]: "[Me]y[alyteres] technical innovations we saw in [Ai]y[ypto] that had slaves, despite in l[srail] that it did not have. From other, so much [politismenoi]7[nkas] and [Ma]y[ias], we found unimaginably behind [technolo]y[ikos], [par] " all where [a]y[nooysan] the work" . . It does not need believes addition no one [tipot] " other here. If therefore [peri] "[antitechnikotitas]" and [peri] "[doylafthonias]" interpretations [aporriptontai], what end [panton] does explain the technological slowness of ancient Greeks? Certain more sober interpretations are here necessary: (i) First - first, whoever [paschi] from anachronistic mentality, knows that even in the leading season of Alexandria, the [epistimonikotechniko] environment had [polyn] street covering, before [mpori] [foyntosi] a "industrial revolution": - In the Statics the " Greeks were important. in Dynamic however the things they were still [thola] - even if had suspected that later [Galilaios] and [Neyton] would find. - Relevantly, various still intermediary (basic importance) techniques did not have were discovered. Basic example, the thaumaturge "piston rod-crank" that changes circular in accidentally [eythygrammi] movement. Big therefore the technical course of Greeks - insufficient however still for the big jump. Insufficient from scientific and technical [apoimi]. M " other reasons, needed also other development. In under - under, why did the locomotive wait for until 1800 and wasn't invented in 1600 when the last Italian publication [tonPneymatikontoy] " [Ironos] was found in each library? Two centuries delay round the 1600, mean respectively four centuries legitimate waiting afterwards the 1 [ai]. [m].[Ch]. (the 11) If therefore historical economic situation allowed the unhindered continuity of Greek [epistimonikotechnikis] development, nothing it excludes we had a abrupt overflow of reservoir, there round the 6th [ai]. [m].[Ch]. [Perissoterin] however importance it has [katalabome] who causes they interrupted the Greek course of technological progress: - And, first, himself the Romen. No only because [anetreiman] violently the necessary for the technology wealth of Greek cities and the greenhouse of ideas that those ensured. But also because, because they were eminently "practical" persons, [esterisan] [ap] " the technology the element precisely what had invigorated him in Greece, that is to say the Science. And [metetreiman] the technology in brilliant [syntagologio] that, of course, despite the most important progress, could not [pai] very [makrya]. - Secondly, the destruction of library of Alexandria (July [Kaisar] 47 eg, [Ayrilianos] 270 [m].[Ch]., Destruction of [Serapeioy] 391 [m].[Ch]., Caliph Omar 641 [m].[Ch].): Do not forget that without the typography and without [laikon] wealth, the knowledge was [anapofeyktos] assembled. And was eminently assembled there, in 700.000 volumes, the all knowledge of [ar] [chaiotitas]. "The, what [xerome] from there and later, him [mazeyome] from [sparagmata] scattered means in t o [ys] centuries. And no so much for the older knowledge that already had anticipated it was propagated - as long as for recent, [technologikoteri], the 2-3 last centuries.